Microscopic sensors using optical wireless integrated circuits
We present a platform for parallel production of standalone, untethered electronic sensors that are truly microscopic, i.e., smaller than the resolution of the naked eye. This platform heterogeneously integrates silicon electronics and inorganic microlight emitting diodes (LEDs) into a 100-μm-scale package that is powered by and communicates with light. The devices are fabricated, packaged, and released in parallel using photolithographic techniques, resulting in ∼10,000 individual sensors per square inch. To illustrate their use, we show proof-of-concept measurements recording voltage, temperature, pressure, and conductivity in a variety of environments. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.