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Fabrication of Injectable Micro-Scale Opto- Electronically Transduced Electrodes (MOTEs) for Physiological Monitoring

Cornell Affiliated Author(s)


S. Lee
A.J. Cortese
A. Mok
C. Wu
T. Wang
J.U. Park
C. Smart
S. Ghajari
D. Khilwani
S. Sadeghi
Y. Ji
J.H. Goldberg
C. Xu
P.L. McEuen
A.C. Molnar


In vivo, chronic neural recording is critical to understand the nervous system, while a tetherless, miniaturized recording unit can render such recording minimally invasive. We present a tetherless, injectable micro-scale opto-electronically transduced electrode (MOTE) that is ∼ 60μ m × 30μ m × 330μ m, the smallest neural recording unit to date. The MOTE consists of an AlGaAs micro-scale light emitting diode (μ LED) heterogeneously integrated on top of conventional 180nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuit. The MOTE combines the merits of optics (AlGaAs μ LED for power and data uplink), and of electronics (CMOS for signal amplification and encoding). The optical powering and communication enable the extreme scaling while the electrical circuits provide a high temporal resolution (< 100μ s). This paper elaborates on the heterogeneous integration in MOTEs, a topic that has been touted without much demonstration on feasibility or scalability. Based on photolithography, we demonstrate how to build heterogenous systems that are scalable as well as biologically stable- the MOTEs can function in saline water for more than six months, and in a mouse brain for two months (and counting). We also present handling/insertion techniques for users (i.e. biologists) to deploy MOTEs with little or no extra training. © 1992-2012 IEEE.

Date Published


Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems





Number of Pages





Group (Lab)

Paul McEuen Group

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