Information geometry for multiparameter models: new perspectives on the origin of simplicity
Complex models in physics, biology, economics, and engineering are oftensloppy, meaning that the model parameters are not well determined by the model predictions for collective behavior. Many parameter combinations can vary over decades without significant changes in the predictions. This review uses information geometry to explore sloppiness and its deep relation to emergent theories. We introduce themodel manifoldof predictions, whose coordinates are the model parameters. Itshyperribbonstructure explains why only a few parameter combinations matter for the behavior.
Universal scaling for disordered viscoelastic matter near the onset of rigidity
The onset of rigidity in interacting liquids, as they undergo a transition to a disordered solid, is associated with a rearrangement of the low-frequency vibrational spectrum. In this Letter, we derive scaling forms for the singular dynamical response of disordered viscoelastic networks near both jamming and rigidity percolation. Using effective-medium theory, we extract critical exponents, invariant scaling combinations, and analytical formulas for universal scaling functions near these transitions.
Dissipation by surface states in superconducting radio-frequency cavities
Recent experiments on superconducting cavities have found that under large rf electromagnetic fields the quality factor can improve with increasing field amplitude, a so-called "anti-Q slope."Linear theories of dissipation break down under these extreme conditions and are unable to explain this behavior. We numerically solve the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations at the surface of a superconductor in a parallel AC magnetic field, finding that at large fields there are quasiparticle surface states with energies below the bulk value of the superconducting gap.
Reaction rates and the noisy saddle-node bifurcation: Renormalization group for barrier crossing
Barrier crossing calculations in chemical reaction-rate theory typically assume that the barrier is large compared to the temperature. When the barrier vanishes, however, there is a qualitative change in behavior. Instead of crossing a barrier, particles slide down a sloping potential. We formulate a renormalization group description of this noisy saddle-node transition. We derive the universal scaling behavior and corrections to scaling for the mean escape time in overdamped systems with arbitrary barrier height.
Analysis of magnetic vortex dissipation in Sn-segregated boundaries in Nb3Sn superconducting RF cavities
We study mechanisms of vortex nucleation in Nb3Sn superconducting RF (SRF) cavities using a combination of experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. Scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and energy dispersive spectroscopy of some Nb3Sn cavities show Sn segregation at grain boundaries in Nb3Sn with Sn concentration as high as âˆ¼35 at. % and widths âˆ¼3 nm in chemical composition. Using ab initio calculations, we estimate the effect excess tin has on the local superconducting properties of the material.
The OpenKIM processing pipeline: A cloud-based automatic material property computation engine
The Open Knowledgebase of Interatomic Models (OpenKIM) is a framework intended to facilitate access to standardized implementations of interatomic models for molecular simulations along with computational protocols to evaluate them. These protocols include tests to compute material properties predicted by models and verification checks to assess their coding integrity.
Visualizing probabilistic models in Minkowski space with intensive symmetrized Kullback-Leibler embedding
We show that the predicted probability distributions for any N-parameter statistical model taking the form of an exponential family can be explicitly and analytically embedded isometrically in a N+N-dimensional Minkowski space. That is, the model predictions can be visualized as control parameters are varied, preserving the natural distance between probability distributions. All pairwise distances between model instances are given by the symmetrized Kullback-Leibler divergence.
Unusual scaling for two-dimensional avalanches: Curing the faceting and scaling in the lower critical dimension
The nonequilibrium random-field Ising model is well studied, yet there are outstanding questions. In two dimensions, power-law scaling approaches fail and the critical disorder is difficult to pin down. Additionally, the presence of faceting on the square lattice creates avalanches that are lattice dependent at small scales. We propose two methods which we find solve these issues. First, we perform large-scale simulations on a Voronoi lattice to mitigate the effects of faceting.
Yield Precursor Dislocation Avalanches in Small Crystals: The Irreversibility Transition
The transition from elastic to plastic deformation in crystalline metals shares history dependence and scale-invariant avalanche signature with other nonequilibrium systems under external loading such as colloidal suspensions.