Etoposide promotes DNA loop trapping and barrier formation by topoisomerase II
Etoposide is a broadly employed chemotherapeutic and eukaryotic topoisomerase II poison that stabilizes cleaved DNA intermediates to promote DNA breakage and cytotoxicity. How etoposide perturbs topoisomerase dynamics is not known. Here we investigated the action of etoposide on yeast topoisomerase II, human topoisomerase IIÎ± and human topoisomerase IIÎ² using several sensitive single-molecule detection methods. Unexpectedly, we found that etoposide induces topoisomerase to trap DNA loops, compacting DNA and restructuring DNA topology. Loop trapping occurs after ATP hydrolysis but before strand ejection from the enzyme. Although etoposide decreases the innate stability of topoisomerase dimers, it increases the ability of the enzyme to act as a stable roadblock. Interestingly, the three topoisomerases show similar etoposide-mediated resistance to dimer separation and sliding along DNA but different abilities to compact DNA and chirally relax DNA supercoils. These data provide unique mechanistic insights into the functional consequences of etoposide on topoisomerase II dynamics. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]. Â© 2023, The Author(s).