Stamp transferred suspended graphene mechanical resonators for radio frequency electrical readout
We present a simple micromanipulation technique to transfer suspended graphene flakes onto any substrate and to assemble them with small localized gates into mechanical resonators. The mechanical motion of the graphene is detected using an electrical, radio frequency (RF) reflection readout scheme where the time-varying graphene capacitor reflects a RF carrier at f = 5-6 GHz producing modulation sidebands at f Â± f m. A mechanical resonance frequency up to f m = 178 MHz is demonstrated. We find both hardening/softening Duffing effects on different samples and obtain a critical amplitude of âˆ¼40 pm for the onset of nonlinearity in graphene mechanical resonators. Measurements of the quality factor of the mechanical resonance as a function of dc bias voltage V dc indicates that dissipation due to motion-induced displacement currents in graphene electrode is important at high frequencies and large V dc. Â© 2011 American Chemical Society.